Westbrook registered his 181st with an assist late in the third quarter.
It was the former MVP's 10th career triple-double against the Pacers, his most against a single opponent.
"I take a lot of pride in doing everything I can to impact winning," Westbrook said postgame, according to ESPN's Ohm Youngmisuk. "To be in a conversation with Oscar, I just want to thank him because he set the stage.
"The things he was able to do back in the day has allowed me to do the things that I do today. So I'm appreciative of that, and I'm appreciative of his support as well."
The 32-year-old also moved up to 12th on the league's all-time assists leaderboard with his fifth dime Saturday.
Westbrook finished with 33 points on 11-of-26 shooting to go along with 19 boards and 15 assists. He hit the go-ahead free throws and blocked Caris LeVert's last-second attempt to seal the victory.
Heading into the Wizards' tilt against the Pacers, Westbrook was averaging 21.8 points, 11.4 boards, and a league-leading 11.4 assists over 60 games in 2020-21. The nine-time All-Star averaged a triple-double in three of the previous four seasons.
Westbrook can break Robertson's long-standing record Monday when Washington takes on the Atlanta Hawks.
The Wizards are now a half-game ahead of the Pacers for the East's No. 9 seed.