The 34-year-old was convicted of criminal possession of a weapon in April after police found a loaded gun in his vehicle during a traffic stop in July 2017.
"This defendant exercised his right to a jury trial and was found guilty of possessing an illegal firearm," Gonzalez said. "The mandatory prison sentence he received today is required by law and he has now been held accountable for the unlawful conduct."
Telfair was one of the most highly touted high school recruits in the nation, but he forwent his college eligibility to declare for the 2004 NBA Draft.
The Portland Trail Blazers selected him 13th overall that year after Telfair was named McDonald's All American Game MVP and Mr. New York Basketball as the best in-state player.
Telfair failed to live up to expectations during his decade-long NBA career and went through his share of off-court issues. He started 180 games over his first five seasons in the Association while playing for the Trail Blazers, Boston Celtics, and Minnesota Timberwolves.
Telfair played for eight teams in total while posting career averages of 7.4 points and 3.5 assists across 564 appearances. He also spent parts of three seasons in the Chinese Basketball Association.