Pearson, the team's top prospect, only lasted one start after being recalled Sunday. The 24-year-old allowed three earned runs while walking five batters over 2 1/3 innings against the Houston Astros.
The Blue Jays want Pearson to become more consistent as he returns from his injury.
"He made some strides in his first Triple-A outing, but he's got some work to do," manager Charlie Montoyo said, according to Sportsnet's Arden Zwelling.
The hurler owns a 6.64 ERA with 18 walks and 16 strikeouts over 20 1/3 innings (five starts) during his brief major-league career. In the minors, he's accrued a 2.20 ERA with 0.88 WHIP and 10.9 K/9 over 35 starts en route to becoming one of MLB's best pitching prospects.
Left-hander Anthony Kay will take Pearson's spot in the rotation, Montoyo added.
Toronto recalled right-hander Jeremy Beasley in a corresponding move.