Last month, the Hurricanes announced that Mattheos would miss training camp to undergo testicular cancer treatments. He was diagnosed in June, only two days after helping the AHL's Charlotte Checkers capture the Calder Cup.
Mattheos had surgery to remove a testicle, as well as multiple rounds of chemotherapy, before being initially ruled out in late August.
"Everyone's been so good to me throughout this whole process, and it just feels really good to get back on the ice," he told reporters after Saturday's session.
The 20-year-old forward also relayed a similar message to his supporters on Twitter.
Carolina selected Mattheos 73rd overall in the 2017 draft.