Golden spent the first four years of his career with the Cardinals after they selected him in the second round of the 2015 draft.
The Cardinals were scouring the market for pass-rushing help after losing All-Pro linebacker Chandler Jones to a season-ending biceps injury in Week 5.
Golden led the Giants with 10 sacks last year, though he's managed only 1.5 through seven games this season. He registered 19 sacks in 46 games with the Cardinals from 2015 to 2018.
The Cardinals sit second in the NFC West with a 4-2 record entering Week 7. They'll meet the division-leading Seattle Seahawks on Sunday Night Football.
Golden will return to New York on Dec. 13 when the Cardinals face the Giants at MetLife Stadium.