Sproles originally suffered a partial tear of the muscle against the New York Jets on Oct. 6. The 15-year veteran missed three games before returning against the Chicago Bears on Nov. 3.
However, Sproles reported an injury following Wednesday's practice, and tests revealed the torn muscle.
The three-time Pro Bowler has flirted with retirement in recent years. He previously said that 2018 would be his final season but played in just six games for Philadelphia due to a hamstring injury.
Sproles then signed a one-year deal with the Eagles in July, saying he wanted to "go out on top."
With 19,696 all-purpose yards, the 36-year-old ranks fifth in NFL history behind Jerry Rice, Brian Mitchell, Walter Payton, and Emmitt Smith.