Flames associate coach Geoff Ward has been named interim bench boss.
Treliving said he accepted a letter of resignation from Peters on Friday morning.
Peters admitted in a letter Wednesday to using "offensive language" while with the IceHogs and said he apologized to the team at the time. However, Aliu said Peters never apologized and called the letter "misleading, insincere, and concerning."
Former Carolina Hurricanes defenseman Michal Jordan subsequently accused Peters of physically abusing him and a teammate. Those alleged incidents took place during Peters' tenure behind the Carolina bench from 2014 to 2018.
Current Hurricanes head coach Rod Brind'Amour, who was previously an assistant to Peters, said the physical abuse "for sure happened."
Peters did not coach the Flames in their win over the Buffalo Sabres on Wednesday night.