It wasn't easy, as McIlroy's final round got off to a shaky start. He made an unforced double-bogey on No. 4 after dunking a 124-yard wedge shot into the water and found himself buried on the leaderboard with plenty of names to chase.
However, unlike previous final rounds this season, McIlroy showed resiliency. He added six birdies to his card, including four on the back nine, and picked up crucial shots on each of his final three par 5s - a must to come out on top at The Players.
The 29-year-old's title puts him in elite company. He's only the third player to claim 15 PGA Tour wins including four majors before the age of 30 since 1934, joining Tiger Woods and Jack Nicklaus, according to 15th Club's Justin Ray.
McIlroy was able to pull past Furyk - who posted 15-under for the clubhouse lead - with an incredible day of ball-striking.
The 48-year-old Furyk shot an impressive 5-under 67 on Sunday despite difficult weather conditions. He also shot 64 in Round 2 and nearly became the oldest Players Champion ever in his 23rd start at TPC Sawgrass, according to Ray.
Eddie Pepperell and Jhonattan Vegas provided the day's fireworks en route to tying for third. Pepperell dropped a 50-foot birdie putt on No. 17 to get to 14-under. A group later, Vegas rolled in his own birdie, except his was from 70 feet, the longest made putt ever recorded on the island green, according to Golf Channel's Rex Hoggard.
Third-round leader Jon Rahm faltered on Day 4. He shot a 4-over 76 to finish in a tie for 12th.
Tiger Woods ended at 6-under for the event, tying for 30th.