"I want to let you know that I'm stepping away from playing professional football!" Schurrle announced on Instagram.
"On behalf of myself and my family, I want to thank everybody who was a part of these phenomenal years! The support and love you shared with me was unbelievable and more I could have ever asked for! Now I'm ready and open for all the beautiful possibilities that are coming towards me."
Mario Gotze converted Schurrle's cross in extra time to clinch Germany's fourth World Cup at the Maracana Stadium. Schurrle also scored two goals in the historic 7-1 semifinal thrashing of host Brazil.
On Wednesday, Schurrle canceled his contract with Borussia Dortmund a year before it was due to expire. He last played for BVB in 2018, having spent the past two seasons on loan at Fulham and Spartak Moscow.
Dortmund signed Schurrle from Wolfsburg in 2016 for a then-club-record €30 million. He scored just eight goals in 51 matches.
"It definitely wasn't a success story for either side," Dortmund chief executive Hans-Joachim Watzke said. "For this reason, it was better to cancel the contract prematurely."
Schurrle began his career at Mainz in 2009 and moved to Bayer Leverkusen where he gained international recognition for his play on the wing. He joined Chelsea in 2013 but failed to nail down a spot in Jose Mourinho's starting XI.
Schurrle returned to Germany with Wolfsburg midway through the 2014-15 season.
His international career was far more successful. He amassed 22 goals in 57 appearances with Die Mannschaft - many of those coming off the bench.